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食用海盐中含有塑料微粒

2017/06/19 科研圈
导读:研究人员检测了来自8个国家,共16份海盐样本,发现其中15份中含有塑料微粒。

本文转载自科研圈微信公众号


来源 ArsTechnica

撰文 Beth Mole

翻译 范雪婷

审校 陈月欣

根据马来西亚研究人员在《科学报告》中的报道,塑料垃圾进入海洋,最终分解为小碎片回到我们的食盐中。

研究人员检测了来自8个国家,共16份海盐样本,发现其中15份中含有塑料微粒(MPs)。他们总共从盐中收集了72种粒子,使用显微拉曼光谱法鉴定其成分大多为塑料聚合物和色素。

盐中塑料微粒的数量很低,尚不足以危害健康——即使海盐是我们唯一的食用盐来源,且需要量较大。然而,研究人员认为调味品污染仍值得持续关注。

他们指出,我们日益增加的塑料使用量“或许会导致海洋和湖泊中塑料微粒逐渐累积,并因此出现在水产品中。规范不同海产品中塑料微粒的数量和种类势在必行。”

研究人员已经不是第一次从食物链中发现塑料。被丢入水道的塑料垃圾分解,由水中优乐娱乐吸收。早先研究发现鱼类贝类等海产品中塑料微粒粒子大小在1-1000微米之间。但是,目前尚无关于盐粒中残留情况的详细研究。

研究人员利用过滤器和光谱,在16个品牌的食盐中分别发现了一到十种粒子——他们并未提及调查的品牌。(研究之初他们还准备了第17个品牌,但由于该品牌食盐出现钙沉积,堵住了过滤器,就剔除了该样本。)

他们发现大多数碎片为出现老化迹象的旧塑料产品碎片,这一发现也排除了食盐外包装材料对实验的干扰。

粒子成分上,最常见的聚合物为聚丙烯和聚乙烯,随后是聚对苯二甲酸乙二酯、聚异戊二烯和尼龙6。他们还发现了色素,包括酞菁、铬黄和铜酞菁。上述成分可以在所有的塑料产品、腈纶纤维和染料中发现。

根据他们的发现和全球食盐摄入量,研究人员估计,假如人们饮食中的钠都来自于海盐,那么人们每年从海盐中摄入约37 MPs。与此相对,早前研究估计酷爱贝类的欧洲人每年可能摄入11000 MPs。目前尚不清楚该数量对人体健康是否有害。

原文链接:

https://arstechnica.com/science/2017/05/sullied-seasoning-seas-salts-come-with-a-dash-of-microplastics/

论文基本信息

【题目】The presence of microplasticsin commercial salts from different countries

【作者】Ali Karami, AbolfazlGolieskardi, Cheng Keong Choo, et al.

【期刊】Scientific Reports

【日期】25 November 2016

【DOI】10.1038/srep46173

【地址】

https://www.nature.com/articles/srep46173#supplementary-information

【摘要】

The occurrence of microplastics (MPs) in saltwater bodies is relatively wellstudied, but nothing is known about their presence in most of the commercialsalts that are widely consumed by humans across the globe. Here, we extracted MP-like particles larger than 149 μm from 17 salt brands originating from 8 different countries followed by the identification of their polymer compositionusing micro-Raman spectroscopy. Microplastics were absent in one brand whileothers contained between 1 to 10 MPs/Kg of salt. Out of the 72 extractedparticles, 41.6% were plastic polymers, 23.6% were pigments, 5.50% were amorphouscarbon, and 29.1% remained unidentified. The particle size (mean ± SD) was515 ± 171 μm. The most common plastic polymers were polypropylene (40.0%) and polyethylene (33.3%). Fragments were the primary form of MPs (63.8%) followedby filaments (25.6%) and films (10.6%). According to our results, the low levelof anthropogenic particles intake from the salts (maximum 37 particles perindividual per annum) warrants negligible health impacts. However, to betterunderstand the health risks associated with salt consumption, further development in extraction protocols are needed to isolate anthropogenic particles smaller than 149 μm.

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